- What are the three groups of organizational fundamentals that carry implications for the developer of information systems?
Three major groups of organizational fundamentals comprise upon:
- i) Firstly he Level of management
- ii) Secondly the design of organizations
iii). Last but not the least, other factors like technology, organizational subcultures and leadership style.
- Who is meant by saying that organizational subsystems are interrelated and interdependent?
The interrelation and interdependency is said to exist in organizational subsystems when any alteration or update occurring in one subsystem affects other subsystems.
- Define the term organizational boundary.
Basically organizational boundary detaches the system from its environment.
- What are the two main purposes of feedback in organizations?
Two main purposes of feedback are: (a) system control and (b) formulating and revising organizational goals
The two main reasons of feedback in any organization are (i) System control and (ii) developing & revising organization objectives
- Define openness in an organizational environment.
An organization with a rather free flow of data and information within its boundaries is said to have openness.
- Define closedness in an organizational environment.
An organization with quite little flow of their data & information within its boundaries is said to have closedness.
- What is the difference between a traditional organization and a virtual one?
Virtual organization in an electronically connected organization with its part in different locations of the world whereas the traditional organization has a fixed physical location.
- What are the potential benefits and a drawback of a virtual organization?
The advantages of a virtual organization are: diminished expenses of physical offices, a more quick reaction to client needs and adaptability for workers to administer to youngsters or maturing folks. A downside is that it is hard to meet the social needs of virtual employees
- Give an example of how systems analysts could work with users as a virtual team.
Virtual teams will be teams of individuals who principally cooperate electronically and who may meet up close and personal once in a while. Illustrations of virtual teams incorporate a group of individuals working at diverse geographic destinations and a task group whose individuals work from home. The case gave in the text permits the analyst to see the software and equipment setup of the client asking for help.
- What are enterprise systems (ERP)?
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is a system that is typically acquired from outside sellers and recreated/updated to fit the necessities of a specific organization. Its motivation is to assist the with flowing of data between the functional ranges of an association
- What problems do analysts often encounter when they try to implement an ERP package?
The issues that the analyst experiences when attempting to actualize an ERP bundle are the trouble of attempting to break down a system as of now being used and after that fit an ERP model to the system. Another issue is that the plan of action does not generally coordinate the ERP usefulness. The effect is postponed execution, higher expenses and the loss of client confidence.
- Who are the two symbols on a use case diagram, and what do they represent?
The two symbols on a use case diagram are Actor & Use Case, actor denotes the role of a user of the system whereas the use case represents a structure of communications/actions in a system.
- What is a use case scenario?
A use case scenario is a text depiction of the stream/flow of events occurring in a use case. There may be substitute situations representing conditions that deliver varieties on the primary situation/scenario
- What are the three main parts of a use case scenario?
First part of use case scenario is the use case identifiers and the initiators; secondly the steps that are performed, third vital part are the conditions, expectations and queries
- What are the four steps in creating use case descriptions?
You’ve start with ‘Actors, goals, descriptions’ after that,
‘Write On Demand’
Followed by ‘Write Effective Steps’
& at the last step you have to ‘Adapt the Level of Precision’
- What are the five altitude metaphors for describing use case on different levels? What represent?
The following are the five altitude metaphors and what do they stand for:
Enterprise level: White (like clouds)
Business unit or department level: Kite
User goals: Blue (sea level)
Functional or sub functional: Indigo (or fish)
Most detailed: Black (or clam)
- What does a process represent on a context-level data flow diagram?
The entire system is represented by a process on context-level data flow diagram
- What is an entity on a data flow diagram?
An entity on a data flow diagram represents an entity that supplies and receives information that is outside of the system.
- What is meant by the term entity-relationship diagram?
An entity-relationship diagram is a graphical depiction of organizational system elements and the association among the elements
- What symbols are used to draw E-R diagrams?
The three symbols used for E-R diagrams are
- rectangle which represent the entity,
- Diamond in a rectangle that are used to join two or more than two many-to-many entities
- Oval in a rectangle that actually represents an attribute, especially in a repeating set.
- List the types of E-R diagrams.
Types of E-R Diagrams:
- one-to-one relationship
- one-to-many relationship
- many-to-one relationship
- many-to-many relationship
- How do an entity, an associative entity, and an attributive entity differ?
An entity represents a person, place or thing. An entity (associative) can just join two central entities. An attributive entity is utilized to show an attribute of an entity, frequently a repeating gathering, and can’t exist without being connected to a basic entity.
- List the three broad, horizontal levels of management in organization
Operations management, then comes middle management and third strategic management are three horizontal levels of management in organizations.
- How can understanding organizational subcultures help in the design of information systems?
Organizational subcultures affect information availability, individual behavior, use of information, and information requirements.