- List the advantages and disadvantages of different cable types in the table below
|Twisted Pair||· Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Structured Premise Cabling licenses numerous communication protocols to live in the same wire group. Cases incorporate voice, information, and CCTV feature and control.
· UTP is Color-coded cabling.
· A decent UTP framework gives preferable interference dismissal over coaxial link.
· TP is less costly than committed coaxial or fiber.
· TP is physically littler than persuade and numerous other cable sorts.
· TP is a simple media to introduce and reconfigure.
· TP is amazingly simple to end.
· Much of the time, the wire is now introduced
| Since there can be distinctive kind signs wired to diverse outlets and all outlets have a striking resemblance, the client should be mindful so as not to wire a gadget to an outlet where a wrong sort of sign is wired. Wring association can prompt circumstance that the system does not work accurately or even to gear harms.
The application initially intended for some other sort of cabling need generally exceptional connectors which cost cash
The current UTP systems (CAT5, CAT5e, and CAT6) have entirely constrained high recurrence execution, so they sometimes fall short for well for transmission of high recurrence signs like satellite TV, TV receiving wire and radio reception apparatus signals. There are item for this accessible, however the execution which can be got with those is for the most part entirely restricted
|Coax|| Sufficient frequency reach to bolster different channel, which considers much more noteworthy throughput.
Lower mistake rates. Since the inward conductor is in a Faraday shield, commotion resistance is enhanced, and urge has a lower slip rates and along these lines somewhat preferable execution over twisted pair.
More prominent dispersing between enhancers coax’s link shielding reduces noise and crosstalk, which implies speakers can be divided more distant separated than with twisted pair.
|The thicker the cable, the more hard to work with
More costly to introduce contrast with bent pair cable.
|Fiber||better performance of system
significantly expanded data transmission and limit
lower sign constriction (misfortune)
resistance to electrical noise
resistant to noise (electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference)
less prohibitive in brutal situations
general system economy
|fiber optic part are costlier
fiber optic transmitters and recipients are still generally costly contrasted with electrical interfaces
The absence of institutionalization in the business has likewise restricted the acknowledgment of fiber optics.
2. Describe the difference between a repeater and an amplifier.
An amplifier is an electronic gadget that builds the voltage, current, or force of a signal. Amplifiers are utilized as a part of remote communications and TV, and in sound equipment of numerous types. They can be classified as either weak signal amplifiers or force amplifiers.
A repeater is a gadget that gets a digital signal on an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and recovers the signal along the following leg of the medium. Repeaters evacuate the undesirable noise in an approaching signal.
Amplifier is utilized to amplify a signal, while repeater is utilized to get and retransmit a signal with a force pick up.
Repeater has an amplifier as a piece of it.
Once in a while, amplifiers acquaint some noise with the signal, though repeaters contain noise wiping out parts.
3. Why are repeaters superior to amplifiers?
Repeaters are superior to amplifiers due to the basic facts that: A repeater is an amplifier that fundamentally is opening up the data signal out to the next side. In any case, repeaters additionally open up noise too hence restricting the quantity of repeaters utilized as a part of any given system fragment. Intelligent repeaters and bridges will open up signal, however without the noise; the signal being recovered before sending. Amplifiers do precisely what you’d expect i.e. they enhance. In the event that you have a parallel signal (ones and zeroes) with some nose, the amplifier will intensify both the ones and zeros, and the noise. They simply expand the voltage of whatever it is that they get, whether it’s a signal or simply noise. Then again, repeaters will translate the signal first (make sense of what an approaching’s piece signal is ones and zeroes, and what part is noise), and afterward they will re-produce and re-send the information, without the noise.
4. What are the differences between single-mode and multi-mode fiber, and which one, in your opinion, is technically superior?
Multimode cable has a huge diameter core and various pathways of light. It comes in two core sizes: 62.5 micron and 50 micron. Multimode fiber optic cable can be utilized for most broad data and voice fiber applications, for example, conveying fiber to the desktop, adding sections to a current network, and in littler applications, for example, caution systems. Both 50-and 62.5-micron cable highlight the same cladding diameter of 125 microns, yet 50-micron fiber cable includes a littler core the light-conveying bit of the fiber.
Single-mode cable has a little, 8–10-micron glass core and stand out pathway of light. With just a solitary wavelength of light going through its core, single-mode cable realigns the light toward the focal point of the core rather than basically skipping it off the core’s edge as multimode does. Single-mode cable gives 50 times more separation than multimode cable. Hence, single-mode cable is normally utilized as a part of whole deal network associations spread out over augmented regions, including digital TV and grounds spine applications. Single-mode cable likewise gives higher data transfer capacity, so you can utilize a couple of single-mode fiber strands full-duplex for up to double the throughput of multimode fiber.
5. Explain the need for category 6 and category 7 cabling.
Cat 6 cable is full-on confirmed to handle Gigabit speeds which means it’s intended to handle it and it does it the best. It’s likewise suitable for any 10-Gigabit utilizes that may tag along sometime in the not so distant future; despite the fact that by then, you’re pushing the breaking points of Cat 6. Cat 6 cable likewise has more stringent specifications for crosstalk and framework noise than Cat 5e does. That implies you’ll get less lapses on a framework working by means of Cat 6. Cat 6 isn’t all roses however. Cat 6 is harder to introduce. Cat 6 conductors are wound all the more firmly, and there’s more protection.
A Category 7 cable, all the more regularly known as a CAT 7 or Cat-7 cable, is utilized for the cabling foundation of Gigabit Ethernet. A CAT 7 cable offers execution of up to 600MHz. One of the best points of interest of CAT 7 cable is the protecting of its curved sets, which altogether enhances noise resistance. CAT 7 cable, whilst being the more costly choice, is likewise viewed as the most strong, and has a more extended lifespan than CAT 5 and CAT 6
6. Why are wire pairs twisted?
Twisted pair is the common copper wire that interfaces home and numerous business PCs to the phone organization. To decrease crosstalk or electromagnetic actuation between pairs of wires, two protected copper wires are twisted around one another. Every association on twisted pair obliges both wires. Since some phone sets or desktop locations oblige different associations, twisted pair is once in a while introduced in two or more pairs, all inside of a solitary cable. At the point when two wires in an electrical circuit are set near one another, their attractive fields are the definite inverse of one another. In this manner, the two attractive fields offset one another. They additionally counteract any outside attractive fields. Winding the wires can upgrade this cancelation impact.
7. Using complete sentences written in your own words, explain the meaning of the following
- a) mark:
- b) Bit time: Bit time is a networking term that measures to what extent one pulse or bit takes to set out from a transmitter to a collector to create a particular network information rate. Bit time, just computes the launch of one bit, and rather than concentrating on the network medium, it takes a gander at how this bit transmits out of a network interface card (NIC) at a determined speed.
- c) Duty cycle: In RF the duty cycle, also called the duty factor is the portion’s measure of the time a radar is transmitting.
d) Timing error: Timing Errors connotes the total number of ways that don’t meet the timing imperatives set.
A voice signal is measured at 3.21692 V and it resides inside an interval from 3.20 V to 3.30 V.
- a) How big is a single interval in volts?
- b) If there were 512 levels in the PCM encoder, how many bits would the sample above represent? HINT: L=2n
- c) Receivers have no choice but to decode the binary sample value at the center of the interval. So, what would the received voltage of the sample be?
- d) If the total range of voltages started at zero and there are 512 intervals, what would the maximum possible voltage be?
- e) The original voice signal voltage and the decoded voltage value are different. What is this “round off error”?
a) 0.10 V is the measurement of a single interval in volts.
b) 9 bits are represented if the above sample had 512 levels.
c) 3.25 V would be the received voltage of the sample.
d) 51.2 V would be the maximum possible voltage if the total range of voltages started at zero and there are 512 intervals.
e) 0.03308 is the “round off error” (quantization error).